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SCIENCE NEWS LETTER

THE WEEKLY SUMMARY OF CURRENT SCIENCE

A SCIENCE SERVICE PUBLICATEON

NORMAN D. FORD

Founder and First President of the Globe Trotters Club, Leading U. S. Retirement

Consultant.

How Old Must a Man Be TO THINK of Retiring?

I learned that even today—with all prices going up—you don’t have to be rich to retire young—

If you know just two things

by Norman D. Ford

HOUSANDS of men sentence themselves to die before their time. They think they’ve got to keep on working for years more,

just because they don’t have enough money in the bank to retire now.

So they continue the eternal rat race of com- muting, they worry through sweltering summers and frigid winters. They keep up the fast pace of modern business. They drag themselves to work dead tired. So is it any wonder that heart disease is today’s Number One Killer? That it kills thousands of men who could take life easy, get more fun of life, keep young thoughts—if they learn just two things?

The two secrets of retiring young

1. Learn where it costs less to live the kind of life you like, and

A retirement counselor known to millions through his coast to coast radio broadcasts, Mr. Ford has helped thousands all over America to find the right place for them to retire on their present income. Mr. Ford constantly answers hundreds of letters like these from people who came to him for personal advice:

HERE CAN I find a clean, friendly

city with a climate that’s mild and

it’s sunny the year around? My doctor says I must live at sea level. I like to play cards, grow flowers, fish. I must have reasonable living costs to go with this including a new 2-bedroom retirement home for less than $700 down.

CANNOT stand heat and my wife can- not stand the cold. She also has a heart condition. We would dearly love

to live in a small home by the sea. Where would you suggest?

WANT to buy a small retirement home

in the country where I can sit by a

log fire during the winter and ex-

perience that cosy feeling you can only

know where there’s a lot of snow outside.

I can only pay $3,500 for the 2-bedroom

home I want. Where can I find my dream home?

S IT REALLY TRUE that you can buy a farm for only $2,500? Where?

’D LIKE to open a filling station as a retirement business in a small Colorado community with good fishing nearby.

Rents must be low. Where do you suggest?

HAVE a highly strung, nervous type of constitution; I also suffer from pleu- risy. I would like to retire in a

medium sized city with plenty of cultural opportunity. What can you suggest?

AM always catching chills and colds

I and would like to retire in a warm, sunny state like California or Florida,

2. Where it is easier to add to your income through a part time job or small business.

If there is anything I have found out in traveling up and down this country, and in every corner of the nation from Maine to Cali- fornia, it is this: That it costs less to retire than you may think it does—provided you know where to retire. _

As founder of the internationally known Globe Trotters Club, I made it my business to discover low cost beauty spots all over the world. And I also learned that right here in the U.S. there are hundreds of undiscovered towns, islands, and bigger communities which are just ideal for the man or woman who wants to retire now and has_ only a small amount of money.

I have found many little known towns in

but I want to be near my daughter who lives in San Antonio, Texas. Can you help me?

S IT possible to buy a rural 5-room I cottage on an acre of ground near the

southern Gulf Coast of Florida for $3,000?

HAVE always wanted to retire on the

I scenic coast of Oregon but do not

want to live more than 100 miles from

a large city like Portland. I have $2,000

to put down on a small home. Can I do it, and if so, where?

OULD ycu suggest a quiet, modest,

and inexpensive seacoast town with

a good beach and fishing where I oua retire within 100 miles of New York ity?

WANT a country place with either a brook running through my property or else a pond. I don’t want to farm,

but I want a flower garden, and I want to raise vegetables and fruit and some chickens. I’d like to live close enough to a big city to get some city advantages like movies, a library, TV, ete. Is it pos- sible to get what I want and at a low price?

Like the men and women who wrote these letters to Norman D. Ford, perhaps you want to retire but have no idea how to go about it or where to get information. If you consulted Mr. Ford in his office or by letter you’d spend up to $25 to get his advice. But he has put all the facts you want—all the facts that answer these typi- cal questions and hundreds more besides— into a wonderful book, “WHERE TO RE- TIRE ON A SMALL INCOME.”

Over 150,000 have been sold already. The 1954 edition is yours for just $1.

Florida, California, New England, the South, the Oklahoma and Missouri hills, Texas, Colo- rado, the Pacific Northwest, ete., where the cost of living is surprisingly low and where you can also find many opportunities to add to your in- come by seasonal work, part time jobs, or where you can open your own part time business. Will you retire young enough to enjoy it?

In short, because there are still many places where you can stretch your dollars and live comfortably and leisurely, you can take life easy a lot sooner than you think, perhaps even right now. Whether your hobby is fishing, hunting, boating, gardening, or just plain loafing, I can help you find the ideal place to retire. And once you retire and start living the kind of life you always wanted to, the chances are you will enjoy better health, need visit the doctor less often, and live longer.

So I say to you that you don’t have to be old or rich to retire. You can retire now if only you know where to retire. And I’ve made it my business to tell people just where they can retire now.

Don’t let inflation ruin your plans to retire

Sooner or later you will want to be independ- ent. You could spend hundreds of dollars just traveling around the country to find a retire- ment spot suitable to you and yet you probably won't learn as much as you can from reading Norman Ford’s famous book, “Where to Retire on a Small Income.” It costs only $1, and it’s sold, too, with a money back guarantee if you’re not satisfied. So today, before you forget, fill out the coupon below and mail to HARIAN PUBLI- CATIONS, 2 WILSON PARKWAY, GREEN- LAWN, NEW YORK.

TO HARIAN PUBLICATIONS, 2 WILSON PARKWAY, GREENLAWN, NEW YORK

I have enclosed a $1 bill. Please send me Norman Ford’s “WHERE TO RE- TIRE ON A SMALL INCOME.” You will refund my money if I am not satis- fied with the bcok.

Please print

Your Name .......

Address

City... - State..

(J Check here if you also want the 75,000-word book: HOW TO MAKE A LIVING IN THE COUNTRY. “Virtually a blueprint for the retired man or woman wanting to make their own way,” says the Chicago Daily News. Simply send two $1 bills, for which we'll mail you this book, plus “Where to Retire on a Small Income,” and a free copy of “How to Earn an Income While Retired.”

Poll EU EPPTITTETTTTTTELTTTLITTLERTPTLPLTETTLTILLLLOOUOD

MEDICINE

Science News Letter for November 21, 1953

Polio Virus Particles

Electron microscope photographs reveal, for the first time, the size and shape of virus particles causing polio. Their diameters measure about one-millionth of an inch.

See Front Cover

> SCIENTISTS NOW have evidence for the size and shape of the crippling little particles that constitute the polio virus.

Electron microscope pictures of these par- ticles, with proof from rat tests that they are the polio virus, were shown to members of the National Academy of Sciences meet- ing in Cambridge, Mass., by University of California researchers.

A few days before, at the meeting of the Electron Microscope Society of America in Pocono Manor, Pa., a different set of elec- tron microscope pictures of polio virus par- ticles were shown by Dr. A. R. Taylor of Parke, Davis and Company, Detroit, where work on a polio vaccine is under way.

Measurements reported for the diameter of these Detroit polio virus particles, 30 mil- limicrons in diameter, show they differ from the California 28-millimicron ones by two millimicrons, one millimicron being equal to one twenty-five-millionth of an inch. Both sets of the polio virus pictures show the particles to be sphere-shaped.

The story of the California research achievement was told by Dr. Wendell Stan- ley, Nobel laureate and famous virus-fighter at the University of California. He credited two young colleagues, Drs. Howard L. Bachrach and Carleton E. Schwerdt, with the accomplishment which comes at the end of three years of research financed by March of Dimes funds.

Shown on the front cover of this week’s Science News LETTER is the University of California’s electron microscope picture of the human polio virus. It is reported to be the first photograph in which scientists can definitely distinguish the human polio virus from contaminant particles that nor- mally occur in biological materials. That the virus is present in pure form is indicated by the fact that no contaminating particles occur.

Two strains of polio have been purified and identified. The Lansing Strain from cotton rat nervous tissue has been produced with about 10 times the purity of former preparations. The MEF-1 strain from tissue cultures of monkey kidney has been ob- tained, apparently in completely pure form.

To understand the significance of the work, it is necessary to note that purity of polio virus is a relative thing. In the past, in the best preparations, only about one percent of the purest material was actually pclio virus.

When scientists looked at this material under the electron microscope, they saw several different sizes and shapes of polio-

hke viruses. No way had been found to prove which was the virus. The increase in purity accomplished by the California group enabled the scientists to work out methods of proving which was the virus.

Two different types of particles were prime suspects. One was about 12 milli- microns, the other 28 millimicrons.

The Berkeley scientists developed a new type ultracentrifuge cell, divided at the cen- ter by a porous barrier. When the cell was whirled, the barrier did not interfere with sedimentation of the particles. When the cell stopped whirling, the separated ma- terials were prevented by the barrier from lemixing.

In the whirling cell, the 28-millimicron particles settled to the bottom of the cell, the 12 millimicrons were present in the upper half.

Rats infected with the large particles from the lower half of the cell died of polio. Rats receiving the smaller particles from the upper half of the cell did not contract polio. Therefore, the larger particles were the polio virus.

N

ess te Bg s =: a

WORLD’S SPEED RECORD—Thundering to a new world’s speed record is

323

Confirmation came from electron micro- scope studies. The scientists, using the spray-drop freezing technique of Dr. Rob- ley Williams, also of the University of California, were able to count the number of the large particles required to kill half a given group of rats. The number of particles required for this killing power was always the same.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

ELECTRONICS Electronic “Brain” Scores Students’ Tests

> AN ELECTRONIC “brain” that scores students’ tests at the rate of 1,400 per min- ute has been invented, Dr. E. F. Lindquist, director of the Iowa Testing Program of the State University of Iowa, revealed at a conference on testing in New York.

The machine, intended for scoring, com- puting and reporting results on tests giv- ing alternate choices for the correct answer, can also be used to process and reduce large amounts of statistical data, Dr. Lindquist pointed out. The equipment will be made available to scientists and researchers throughout the nation.

It consists of a high-speed automatic test scoring machine, linked with a special- purpose electronic computer and an output printer. Installation is expected to take about a year.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

-

a North American Super Sabre, which on Oct. 29 averaged 754.98 miles per hour over a 15-kilometer course. The plane is powered by a Pratt and Whitney J-57 engine, which delivers 10,000 pounds of thrust.

324

PLANT PATHOLOGY

Science News Letter for November 21, 1953

Control Fungus Disease

> OLIGOMYCIN, A new antibiotic iso- lated at the University of Wisconsin, shows promise in the control of plant fungus dis- eases. The antibiotic was discovered by bacteriologists Elizabeth McCoy, W. H. Peterson and Robert M. Smith.

Unlike streptomycin, terramycin and other antibiotics that are effective only against bacteria, oligomycin strikes at many plant disease fungi and, at the same time, is harmless to bacteria. At the present time use of antibiotics to fight bacterial diseases in animals and plants is rapidly expanding.

Scientists have searched for a way to con- trol fungus diseases without harming help- ful bacteria in the plant and injuring the plant itself. Spray fungicides used now will control fungus diseases, but the spray

TECHNOLOGY

also damages the plant. An antibiotic that is selective in its action against fungi has been sought for use against these expensive and hard-to-treat plant diseases.

The Wisconsin tests seem to indicate that oligomycin is the answer to this search. The tests will be continued, however, to deter- mine other aspects of oligomycin’s action.

The new antibiotic has another property not shared by other members of the “won- der drug” family. It is highly stable when used against plant diseases in the soil. Streptomycin and other antibiotics lose their potency very quickly when applied to the soil. Oligomycin maintains its activity over a wide range of acidity and temperature conditions.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

Pollution Indicator

> A NEW device giving a continuous rec- ord of river water pollution is now in use by scientists at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

Called the Catherwood diatometer, it indicates what is happening to the aquatic life in a river by collecting and measuring the changes in the numbers and kinds of diatoms in the water. Diatoms are one- celled algae found singly or in colonies. They are a river’s most widely distributed water plants, and an important food for fish, waterfowl and other aquatic animals.

Polluted water is often characterized by a very low oxygen content and toxic sub- stances. Diatoms, one of the most active groups in reoxygenating the water, are good indicators of water conditions because the various species differ in their tolerance of

PLANT PATHOLOGY

pollution, Dr. Ruth Patrick of the Acad- emy reports.

Diatoms have cell walls of silica, and are thus easily collected and preserved. The new device consists of two buoyant metal balls supporting between them a ledge on which are placed the slides for collecting diatoms. The slides on which these plants collect when the instrument is suspended in water, Dr. Patrick reports, can be stored without special treatment and kept perma- nently.

Knowing the kinds of plants and animals in a river is fundamental to an understand- ing of how a river may be used but not abused. Stream survey teams directed by Dr. Patrick have studied rivers from the St. Lawrence to the Sabine River, Texas.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

Conquer Fruit Disease

> CONQUEST OF fireblight, a devastat- ing disease of apple and pear trees, by using modern “wonder drugs” is forecast by ex- periments of Drs. H. F. Winter and H. C. Young at the Ohio Agricultural Experi- ment Station in Wooster.

Streptomycin and terramycin, two of the antibiotics which helped revolutionize hu- man medicine, have proved to be the first promising means of controlling fireblight.

Fireblight is caused by a bacterium, Er- winia amylovara, that usually enters a tree during the blossom season when bees trans- fer the bacteria from the flowers of dis- eased trees to blooms on healthy trees.

Drs. Winter and Young found that foliage sprays of streptomycin and terra- mycin made apple trees temporarily im-

mune to bacterial infection. Applications of an antibiotic before and after a spray containing bacteria were found to control the blight.

Their results were striking. The spray- ing was done in the spring, and recently when the trees were examined, they found that the trees given the antibiotic treat- ment were nearly blight-free while control trees, sprayed with bacteria but not with a drug, were heavily blighted.

Three applications of streptomycin gave almost 100% control of the disease, they report. Terramycin was slightly less effec- tive.

An additional problem to be worked out is the high cost of the antibiotics. It is possible that a less refined form of the bac-

teria-killer may be made available for agri- cultural uses.

Fireblight wiped out the pear orchards of California 50 years ago and largely elimi- nated pears from Ohio. It also limits the production of many varieties of apples. Scientists have been investigating the dis- ease for 75 years in hope of finding a means of control. The antibiotics are the first to be found.

Antibiotics have also been found effective in fighting animal diseases and halo blight in beans. Farmers and fruit growers, how- ever, have been cautioned on their use be- cause they affect the plant auxins.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

SCIENCE NEWS LETTER

VOL. 64 NOVEMBER 21, 1953 NO. 21

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MEDICINE

Science News LETTER for November 21, 1953

New Artificial Kidney Use

Chemical-mechanical device adapted to remove excess water from water-logged patients gives hope of future aid

to heart disease victims.

> A HINT that some patients with heart disease may some day be helped by an arti- ficial kidney appeared in a report of Dr. Lewis W. Bluemle Jr., associate in medicine at the Hospital of the University of Penn- sylvania, to the American Philosophical Society meeting in Philadelphia.

The hint came when Dr. Bluemle re- ported that, in a few cases, a specially adapted artificial kidney had succeeded in removing some excess water from edema- tous, or water-logged, patients. He reported particularly on one patient who was having breathing difficulty because of fluid accumu- lation in his chest. The condition had reached the point of threatening the pa- tient’s life when the artificial kidney was used.

In the course of six hours, the artificial kidney had removed about one and a half quarts of water. Constant weighing of the patient on a stretcher scale during this period also showed the patient had lost al- most four pounds in weight, corresponding to the loss of excess water. At the same time, the patient’s breathing difficulty was relieved and the rapid rate of breathing re- turned to normal.

Since this edematous condition is a com- plication in some patients with heart failure, it seems that in the future it might be pos- sible to help these patients, perhaps getting

AERONAUTICS

them in shape to stand some of the new heart operations, by use of the artificial kidney.

Heretofore artificial kidneys have been used chiefly in cases of acute kidney failure, when the kidneys are temporarily unable to carry on their normal function. Mentioned by Dr. Bluemle as causes of such kidney failure were excessive blood loss, accidents, burns, battle injuries, childbirth accidents, mismatched blood transfusions and poison- ings with such chemicals as carbon tetra- chloride and bichloride of mercury.

With the artificial kidney, the patient’s blood is dialyzed through semi-permeable membranes. The dialyzing membranes provide a means of filtering from the blood the end-products of the body’s digestive and other chemical processes which would be poisonous if accumulated in too large amounts. The blood is then returned to the patient’s circulation. The process is continuous for about six hours.

The artificial kidney can be adapted to remove excess water as well by using the principle of ultrafiltration, which puts the blood through the dialyzing membranes under high hydrostatic pressure of 200 to 300 millimeters of mercury. With this adaptation of the kidney, water can be re- moved at the rate of about 10 ounces an

hour. Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

Completing British Jetliner

> A SLEEK, delta-winged jet aircraft for hauling freight as well as passengers at speeds greater than 600 miles an hour is nearing completion in London.

The plane is designed to make the Lon- don-New York crossing in seven hours non- stop and will carry 76 to 131 passengers, depending upon the class of service. Called the Avro Atlantic, the long-range plane is a larger civilian design of the latest type of British bomber, the Avro Vulcan.

The Atlantic is being designed for eco- nomic operation, and will be able to carry all the fuel required for long non-stop flights in its delta-shaped wings. The en- tire fuselage, except for a small flight deck for pilot and crew and space for the nose wheel, will be available for passengers and freight.

British designers plan to use four turbo jet engines on the plane. They will be spotted at the rear edge of the delta-wing. This will allow all seating to be arranged

forward of the “noise cone” that spreads from the jet pipes.

In some models, all seats will face the rear of the plane. In the luxury version there will be accommodation in three com- partments for 76 passengers, or 88 if the tentatively planned bar is omitted.

The standard model will have rows of five seats across, with a center aisle, seating 94 passengers or 109 if there is no bar. The tourist version will have six seats to a row, with center aisle, and seating 113 passengers or 131 if the bar is left out.

Freight compartments will be below the passenger deck, with small luggage and cloakroom accommodation on the passenger deck. There will also be a version of the Avro Atlantic largely for freight.

The Atlantic’s wingspan will be 121 feet, its length, 145 feet. The Atlantic will weigh about 100 tons on take-off, and carry a payload varying according to distance of 10 to 22 tons. It will have a cruising speed

325

of more than 600 miles per hour, and a service ceiling of 40,000 feet. Its cabins will be pressurized.

Designed to operate non-stop on routes up to 4,000 miles in length, the plane’s operating costs have been estimated at about one cent per passenger mile.

Although no definite orders have been placed yet for the aircraft, British Overseas Airways Corporation has expressed an in- terest in the plane, for its various world- wide routes.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

ANIMAL NUTRITION Scientists to Study Diet Needs of Cats

> CAT OWNERS at some future date will have a scientific nutrition yardstick for how much milk, fish heads and other proteins their pets need to keep them sleek, healthy and neither too fat nor too thin, and best able to have healthy kittens.

The yardstick will come from scientists at Rutgers University Bureau of Biological Re- search in New Jersey, who will study the cat’s protein needs under a new $6,000 grant from the Mark L. Morris Animal Memorial Foundation of Topeka, Kans.

The information gained from the research may also lead to better knowledge of pro- tein needs of other animals, including man.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

ASTRONOMY Heart of “Ices” For Comet Nucleus

> THE COMET that showered “shooting stars” on us last August has a heart of “ices?” of common gases.

Support for this theory is presented in Nature (Nov. 7) by Dr. Peter M. Millman of the Dominion Observatory, Ottawa, Can. He spotted hydrogen, lightest of all the ele- ments, in photographs of the fanned-out light of visible meteor particles in August’s Perseid meteor shower.

Dr. Fred L. Whipple of Harvard College Observatory has suggested that the solid nucleus of a comet, composed of ices of common gases, is turned by the sun’s heat into the huge cloud of gas that makes up the comet’s head. The fan-like tail, by which a comet is most easily spotted, is caused by the sun’s radiation, which sweeps the gases and dust back from the head of the comet.

“Some of these hydrogen ices,’ Dr. Mill- man concludes, “might well be retained in meteoritic particles large enough to produce a Perseid fireball in the visual magnitude range.”

Dr. G. P. Kuiper of Yerkes Observatory has suggested that the hydrogen found by Dr. Millman could occur in the water of crystallization of certain chemical com- pounds believed to be present in the mete- oric particles formed by comets.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

326

GENETICS

Science News Letter for November 21, 1953

No A-Bomb Effects

> SO FAR, no bad effects of significance have turned up in the first generation of children born to parents who survived the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Naga- saki, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commis- sion reports in Science (Nov. 6).

Such effects as could be found were mostly what geneticists expected. For ex- ample, if the mothers had been exposed to radiation from the bombing of Nagasaki, there were fewer boy babies, while if fathers had been exposed to the bomb’s radiation, there were fewer girl babies. This change in the sex ratio, however, is not truly genetic and will not affect the next generation, because the effect was on the reproductive cells in the bodies of the irradiated parents.

An increase in stillbirths and in births of malformed babies was expected. The in- crease that occurred was so slight as to be barely significant.

Babies born of parents who survived the bombing although exposed to it were ex- pected to be smaller and weigh less at birth. Contrary to the expectation, however, the babies did not weigh any less and, if any- thing, weighed a little more than the aver-

ASTRONOMY

age. This may or may not be carried on to the next generation. It may be that the hardy, more robust persons with more flesh to protect their reproductive organs were the ones who survived the bombing with ability to have children, and these might be expected to have larger than average children anyway.

The report, termed preliminary, covers only the first generation of children after the bombing and only those conceived after the bombing.

Scientists making the report are: Drs. J. V. Neel and W. J. Schull, now at the Uni- versity of Michigan; Dr. N. E. Morton, now at the University of Wisconsin; Dr. R. C. Anderson, now at the University of Minne- sota School of Medicine, Minneapolis; Capt. J. Wood with the Air Force at Bolling Field, D. C.; statistician Richard Brewer, now with the Department of State on as- signment to Teheran, Persia; Drs. S. Wright and J. Yamazaki, now at the University of California Medical Center at Los Angeles; and Drs. D. J. McDonald, M. Kodani, K. Takeshima and S. Kitamura, still with the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in Hiroshima.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

Automatic Star Location

> A MACHINE that automatically scans photographic plates of the heavens, identi- fies and measures the exact location of stars, then punches their positions on cards is now in operation at the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory of Columbia Univer- sity, New York.

Dr. Wallace J. Eckert, director of the laboratory, which is operated jointly by the University and International Business Ma- chines Corporation, says that the unique “star factory” makes as many measurements in one day as a highly-trained person can make in a week, and the accuracy is four times greater. It is the result of a six-year project.

Photographic plates 17 inches square, con- taining the image of about 400 stars each, are placed on the adjustable holder of the measuring engine while they are scanned by an extremely sensitive photoelectric cell.

From IBM cards, the approximate loca- tion of individual stars, obtained from a previous star catalogue, is transmitted to motors that move the appropriate image in front of the photoelectric eye.

The eye measures the exact position of each star to within a hundred-thousandth of an inch, then relays this exact position back to the same card that yielded the ap- proximate information for punching on it.

In order to relate positions measured on the plate to the true positions in the sky,

elaborate computations are necessary. Elec- tronic calculators can do this brainwork automatically, using the punched cards from the star factory. The resulting true posi- tions can then be printed electrically and reproduced photographically, thus complet- ing the automatic operation.

“Now that the entire process is mecha- nized, it should be possible to do a star catalogue for the entire sky at one place in no longer than two or three years,” Dr. Eckert states. Previous star catalogues have taken several persons at least a generation.

Some of the problems solved in building the star factory will also be applicable to automatic operation of machine tools and to manufacturing plants.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

NUTRITION Turkey Crop Is Down From Last Year’s High

> FIVE STATES will greet the holiday season this year with record turkey crops, but the national production is down from last year’s record high.

Economists in the U. S. Department of Agriculture expect about 4,000,000 fewer birds than the 60,000,000 last year.

Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Dela- ware and New York are the states reaching

new highs this year. New York will still have to import millions of birds, however, for its 1,000,000 turkeys will only grace one out of every six holiday tables in the state.

Prices both to the farmer and retail are about the same, the department reports. Wholesale prices on light birds are slightly advanced over last year. The smaller num- ber of birds this year should act to make the prices stable.

Consumer demand for turkeys last year did not match the supply of birds, and the government stepped in with a surplus di- version program to keep prices up. About six percent of last year’s crop was covered in this surplus diversion program.

The dry weather has been a contributing factor to good turkey production this year. Several diseases such as blackhead and blue-

comb are much less prevalent in dry weather.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953 TECHNOLOGY

Headlights of Future: More Light, Less Glare

> HEADLIGHTS, 10 times more powerful than those of today, will be used on auto- mobiles in the year 2003 without blinding glare to approaching drivers, predicts Val J. Roper, General Electric engineer.

The solution of the problem of more light with less glare will be polarized lenses and windshields, he says. The polarization to cut out the glare will be of the type that can be removed with the flick of a switch for daytime driving.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

BIOCHEMISTRY Find Hormone Helps Eyes See at Night

> RESEARCH SHOWING how a hor- mone from the pituitary gland helps eyes adapt to see in the dark is reported by Dr. Toshimasa Hanaoka of Nara Women’s Uni- versity, Nara, Japan, in Nature (Nov. 7).

The hormone is called the melanophore hormone, meaning that it deals with pig- ment formation. Injections under the skin of a highly purified fraction of this hor- mone, Dr. Hanaoka found, shortens the time it takes a person to adapt his eyes to seeing in the dark.

To learn more about how the hormone achieves this effect, Dr. Hanaoka carried out laboratory experiments with the hor- mone and the visual purple extracted from frog eyes. The visual purple is a light sen- sitive chemical in the eyes which is bleached by yellow light and is sometimes called one of the chemicals of vision.

The melanophore hormone helped the regeneration of the visual purple after it had been bleached. Some of the experi- ments suggest the existence of a factor which “cooperates with the melanophore hormone very effectively.” Dr. Hanaoka is now investigating this aspect of the problem.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

TINY GIANT This thimble-size, power-type transistor has an output of 20 watts.

ELECTRONICS Goliath-Sized Transistor Has Record Power Output

> A GOLIATH-SIZED transistor has been developed that has a lusty 20-watt output, more than 100 times more powerful than the tiny nugget-like transistors now going into “tubeless” hearing aids and radio equipment.

About the size of a small thimble, the transistor is designed to work in the field of automatic controls. It already has been applied to a prototype aircraft electronic fuel gage. The transistor is not yet com- mercially available, Minneapolis-Honeywell engineers in Minneapolis report.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

AGRICULTURE Harvest Dates for Peas Predicted Accurately

> A METHOD of forecasting the harvest dates of peas has been developed to a de- gree of great accuracy at the New York Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, N. Y:

Prof. Charles B. Sayre has found that by using a 27-year temperature average for each day of the growing season and the known growth patterns of pea varieties, it is possible to predict the date of harvest for a specified maturity.

Though the possibility of abnormal weather and other variables keeps the fore- casts from being absolutely accurate, the method is still useful to large growers who need to harvest their vegetable crops at a certain period of maturity.

Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

Science News Letter for November 21, 1953

AERONAUTICS

327

North American Defense

> OFFICIALS AT Royal Canadian Air Force headquarters visualize Canada’s air might as a segment of a continental unit rather than as an all-inclusive air arm of one country that can do everything.

They see Canada’s air potential defending North America while working hand-in- glove with the U. S. Air Force. As such, they are concentrating the air force build-up on a fighter element that can punch an aggressor with telling force. They are rely- ing upon the U. S. for support if strategic bombing operations are required.

RCAF officials reached this decision after realizing it would not be feasible for Can- ada to maintain a strategic bombing force of her own. Strategic bombing operations, it was discovered, would tax the RCAF’s resources to such a point that none of its operational elements would be more than a token force.

The RCAF has enlisted Jet Vampires, Mustangs, CF-100 Canucks and F-86 Sabres in its fighting wings. Just a small number of Mustangs were obtained. They were, in the immediate post-war years, the best avail- able type of piston-driven fighters for Ca- nadian conditions. They now are being supplemented with modern CF-100 Canucks.

TECHNOLOGY

The Canuck is a Canadian venture from start to finish. Designed and built by A. V. Roe Canada Ltd., it is powered by twin Orenda jet engines. It is a long-range, all- weather, two-seater fighter especially created to meet Canadian flying conditions. It now js in squadron operational use.

The Sabre, which distinguished itself in Korean dogfights, is an American-designed plane. Created by North American Avia- tion, Inc., it now is being built in Canada under license by Canadair Ltd., at Montreal. The RCAF uses it as a day fighter. It also helps fill the RCAF squadrons serving with the NATO Air Division in Europe.

Build-up of the RCAF began at the end of World War II, but was accelerated to a record pace in 1950 when the Korean War started.

At present, a $400,000,000 RCAF con- struction program is under way to fortify North America against aerial attack. Stretching across Canada and into the Northland, the building program involves the construction or expansion of operational flying and training stations, supply and re- pair depots, command and station head- quarters, radar outposts and other essential

projects. Science News Letter, November 21, 1953

Tape Recorded TV Shows

> TAPE RECORDINGS of color and black-and-white television shows should have a revolutionary impact on the video industry in the not-too-distant future.

As a result of the economies offered by television tapes, hard-pressed sponsors may be able to buy more with their advertising dollar than they can at present. This in turn may mean better programs on your video screen.

Such a recording system has been de-